Solutions

The example solutions list does not include all solutions available and importantly we cannot provide solutions for every topic listed in all circumstances. We have to discuss the needs and circumstances of your measurement conditions in order to determine if we can offer a solution that meets your needs.

If this list triggers your interest then we hope you will contact us to discuss your problem.

Example (not exclusive) Solutions List:

Electrical (Majority Carrier) Properties:

(Bulk properties, Wafer map or Depth profiles)
Resistivity
Carrier Concentration
Activation Energies
Carrier Type
Carrier Mobility
Effective Mass
Scattering Mechanisms
Compensation
Surface charge

Electrical (Minority Carrier) Properties:

(Bulk properties, Wafer map)
Recombination Lifetime
Diffusion length
Deep level trapping
Generation lifetime
Interface/Surface recombination velocity
Carrier mobility (inversion layer)

Thin Film Properties (semiconductor, dielectric, metal):

(Point measurement or Wafer map)
Refractive index (n & k function of wavelength)
Film thickness (multi-layer)
Fundamental Band Gap (value, type)
Surface roughness
Defects: pinhole density etc.

Solar Cell (PV ) Parameters:

(Point measurement or Wafer map)
Spectral Response (QE function of wavelength)
I -V curve *(Voc, Isc and FF)
Function of solar Concentration